Integrated Phonological Awareness Training (IPA)

IPA focuses on speech output, phoneme awareness, and letter-sound knowledge to increase phonological awareness skills.

Who It's For:

This is appropriate for children who are 4-7 years old with speech-language impairment. It is also appropriate for children with SSD and at-risk for literacy difficulties.

How It's Practiced:

When choosing target words ensure that you are targeting consistent error patterns.

Use about 10 words containing target error pattern or target sound.

Sessions focus on letter-sound knowledge, phoneme identity, phoneme segmentation and blending, and phoneme manipulation with letter tiles.

  • Letter sound knowledge: Produce sound for associated letter.
  • Phoneme identity: The child will identify a picture/object containing target sound. (Find all of the toys that start with the /b/ sound).
  • Phoneme segmentation: Identify individual sounds in a word.
  • Phoneme blending: Provide the child with the segmented phonemes ask them to tell you the word (c-a-t, what is that word?).
  • Phoneme manipulation with letter tiles: Provide the child with a word and ask them to change it by one phoneme (This says cat, can you make it say cot?). Start with the manipulation of initial sounds and then move to other word positions.

Download Integrated Phonological Awareness Training [] (here)


17 to 20 hours of intervention total. Most often it is spread over 2 therapy sessions of 45 to 60 minutes in length.


McNeill, B.C. & Gillon, G.T. (2021). Integrated Phonological Awareness Intervention. In A.L. Williams, S. McLeod, & R. J. McCauley (Eds.) Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children (2nd ed., pp. 111-140). essay, Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. .